Trauma centers were developed with the intent of improving the safety and effectiveness of care for injured patients. Many studies have looked at the effect of an established trauma team and/or systems on mortality. A dedicated trauma service can improve the cost and quality of care, especially in areas of higher population density. Academic medical centers often use protocol-based management schemes to help coordinate care across a broad spectrum of services and health care providers. Improvements in patient outcomes have been reported when the oncall attending can respond within 15 minutes of an alert and provides direct supervision in the resuscitation room.