From the preface: "The Air Force uses the Strength Aptitude Test (SAT) to determine whether recruits meet the fitness levels needed to perform the duties of various Air Force specialties with physical strength requirements. However, the SAT was developed in the early 1980s and has not been revalidated since then. In the interim, the duties associated with many Air Force Specialty Code (AFSC) classifications have changed, and new ones have been added. This report evaluates the status and validity of the SAT in a series of studies and builds upon previous RAND research on the SAT (Sims et al., 2014). It also suggests alternative strategies for developing SAT requirements that accurately reflect the physical demands of Air Force jobs while minimizing adverse effects on job opportunities for women."