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Revisiting the Criteria for Military Essentiality in Total Force Manpower Management. Alexandria, VA : Institute for Defense Analyses , April , 2019

April 2019

Institute for Defense Analyses

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From the executive summary: “The Department of Defense employs a Total Force approach to accomplish national security objectives, including military, government civilian, and contracted support. Military personnel are the most restricted workforce type due to their necessity in ensuring the legitimate use of force in conflict. In updating Section 129 of Title 10, United States Code, the 2017 and 2019 National Defense Authorization Acts require that military personnel be reserved to perform functions only Service members can discharge in order to achieve national defense goals or to enable the proper functioning of the military departments. DOD Directive (DODD) 1100.4 specifies the guiding principles for the military Services and other DOD components to use when determining their workforce mix of military, civilian, and contract labor.”



Greenwood, Thomas, Abbe, Allison, Frye, Clark, Johnson, Anthony, Khachatryan, Ani


Institute for Defense Analyses


IDA Paper P-10356


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