From the preface: "The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission requires all executive agencies and military departments to examine their workforces for barriers to equal opportunity using the relevant civilian labor force (CLF) as a benchmark. This policy directs agencies to strive for a similar proportion of employees who are women as that in the population of similarly situated workers in the CLF. Concurrently, agencies are also subject to several policies incentivizing the hiring of military veterans. For example, veterans who qualify receive preferential treatment in the federal hiring process, and a 2009 executive order indicated that further promoting employment opportunities for veterans in the executive branch should be considered official policy (Obama, 2009). Because most military veterans are men, agencies such as those in the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) that have a large proportion of veteran workers should be less likely to mirror the relevant CLF, all else being equal. To investigate the potential tradeoffs involved in these two policy areas, this report uses workforce modeling analytic tools to assess the relationship between veterans’ employment and women’s representation."